federal tax
Subscribe to federal tax's Posts

What are the Time Limits for Assessing Additional Federal Tax and Filing a Refund Claim?

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) must follow the “statute of limitations” as stated in Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 6501 to “assess” additional federal tax. Likewise, taxpayers must seek a tax overpayment or refund within the statutory period stated in IRC Section 6511. In this article, we’ll answer some of the most common questions regarding when the IRS can assess additional federal tax and when taxpayers must file a refund claim.

WHEN DOES THE STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS FOR ASSESSING ADDITIONAL TAXES START?

Typically, the period during which the IRS can seek additional tax starts when the taxpayer files their tax return. A taxpayer “self-assesses” when the amount of tax is stated on the return, but tax assessment can also occur when the IRS creates a “substitute for return” under IRC Section 6020. (For example, when the taxpayer fails to timely file a return.) Assessment merely means that the IRS records the tax liability on its official ledger for each taxpayer. An assessment is significant because it is legally considered a debt of the taxpayer for which the IRS can commence collection activities, like placing a lien and levy on property.

Self-Assessment Example: The taxpayer reports on a timely filed return a tax liability of $10,000 and submits payment of $5,000. The $10,000 tax is automatically assessed and constitutes a tax debt of the taxpayer, despite only a partial payment. In this case, the IRS would seek to collect the balance due ($5,000) from the taxpayer under the collection rules.

WHAT IS A TAX ASSESSMENT?

The IRS assesses tax by recording the amount owed in its official records. The assessment establishes the fact and amount of the tax liability that’s due to the IRS and starts the period during which the IRS can collect the amounts due and owing. Generally, the IRS may not lien or levy a taxpayer’s property until after an assessment is made.

There are three primary types of assessments:

  1. A “summary assessment” occurs automatically when the taxpayer reports an amount of tax on a return.
  2. A “jeopardy assessment” occurs when the IRS determines that the taxpayer may abscond with property that the IRS may need to lien and/or levy to satisfy a tax deficiency.
  3. A “tax deficiency assessment” occurs after the IRS determines the amount owed by the taxpayer and follows its procedures to permit the taxpayer to challenge its determination (usually after an audit).

STATUTORY NOTICE OF DEFICIENCY (THE 90-DAY LETTER)

If the IRS audits a return and determines that the taxpayer owes additional tax, it generally cannot assess the tax before sending the taxpayer a statutory notice of deficiency, or the so-called “90 day letter.” The letter must be sent by certified or registered mail to the last known address of the taxpayer (which is usually the address listed on the last return filed with the IRS). If the taxpayer does not file a timely petition with the US Tax Court in response to the 90-day letter, the IRS may then assess [...]

Continue Reading




New Resource Center: Navigating Change in the US Administration

Pandemic relief, taxes, income inequality, climate change, infrastructure, healthcare and civil rights: the new US administration is moving forward rapidly on President Joe Biden’s stated priorities. So how are these new policies affecting your business? We’re here to keep you informed!

McDermott Will & Emery’s multidisciplinary team of industry-leading lawyers are monitoring key legal areas to help you navigate and gain perspective on the most critical impacts of changing US policies. Access the latest updates in our new resource center.




Cryptocurrency May Be Subject to US Tax: Come Into Compliance Now

Lately, we have been frequently asked the question: “I file US tax returns and pay taxes here. Are my cryptocurrency transactions taxable or reportable in the US?”

The answer for US persons and US taxpayers most likely is “yes.” US persons are generally taxable on income earned worldwide, regardless of the manner in which that income is paid (e.g. currency (foreign or domestic) or property (tangible, intangible or virtual)). Thus, if you have bought, sold or exchanged cryptocurrency, those transactions could be subject to federal tax. If your cryptocurrency is held offshore, a number of offshore reporting obligations could also apply to these holdings.

Now is the right time to come forward and resolve any US compliance issues related to your cryptocurrency holdings. As we have seen in recent cases like the Coinbase summons enforcement proceeding (which we reported upon in several previous posts), the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has stepped up its enforcement efforts regarding undisclosed interests in cryptocurrency worldwide.

How should you come forward? Following an IRS-attended conference earlier this year, comments began circulating that the IRS was considering the creation of a formal voluntary disclosure program for cryptocurrency transactions, similar to the now-ended Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program. (We reported on that program numerous times, here.) Unfortunately, the IRS has now squashed this rumor, stating that “IRS is not contemplating a separate program related to offshore [virtual] currencies.” A domestic program was not even mentioned.

Despite this news, a number of disclosure options remain available for bringing your US and foreign cryptocurrency into compliance. The IRS’s longstanding voluntary disclosure policy remains in full force and effect. This policy acts to reduce or eliminate the risk of criminal prosecution related to nondisclosure of domestic or foreign taxable assets, and can provide avenues to reduce civil penalties as well. Further, the IRS’s Streamlined Filing Compliance Procedures and Delinquent International Information Return Procedures are still active and may provide reduced (or no) penalties for US international tax non-compliance in appropriate cases.

Practice Point: Beyond the short answer of “yes, cryptocurrency is taxable,” a number of open questions regarding the taxation and reporting of cryptocurrency in the US remain. For example, determining what offshore crypto holdings are subject to FBAR and Form 8938 reporting remains complicated and unclear. Also, although tax reform has eliminated the use of Section 1031 exchanges to avoid currently being taxed for personal property like cryptocurrencies, the IRS’s position on exchanges that occurred prior to 2018 is still unknown. There are also open valuation questions, particularly for crypto accounts subject to access limitations like lock-up periods. The tax treatment of so-called hard and soft “forks” is also unclear. Finally, crypto exchanges are navigating a number of open reporting and compliance issues. If you have significant holdings in cryptocurrency, consult with a federal tax advisor who understands the tax aspects of this unique asset to [...]

Continue Reading




Treasury and IRS Throw Out 298 Regulations and Amend 79 Others

Following up on our prior posts here and here, the Department of the Treasury (Treasury) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) have proposed to remove 298 regulations and amend 79 regulations. The Treasury’s and the IRS’s action is in response to Executive Order 13789 (April 21, 2017), which called on the Treasury and the IRS to identify and reduce tax regulatory burdens that impose undue financial burdens on US taxpayers or otherwise add undue complexity to federal tax laws.

The 298 regulations are proposed to be removed because they have no current or future applicability and, therefore, no longer provide useful guidance. However, the proposed removal is not intended to alter any non-regulatory guidance that cites or relies on these regulations. The regulations proposed to be removed fall into one of three categories:

  • Regulations interpreting provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) that have been repealed;
  • Regulations interpreting Code provision that, while not repealed, have been significantly revised, and the existing regulations do not account for these statutory changes (note that to fall within this category, the statutory changes must have rendered the entire regulation inapplicable); and
  • Regulations that, by the terms of the relevant Code provisions or the regulations themselves, are no longer applicable (g., expired temporary regulations, certain transition rules)

The 79 regulations proposed to be amended are regulations that make reference to the 298 regulations proposed to be removed.

Before the proposed regulations removing and withdrawing regulations are adopted as final regulations, the Treasury and the IRS will give consideration to any written comments provided by the public. Comments must be received by May 14, 2018. A public hearing may be scheduled if requested in writing by any person that timely submits written comments.

Practice Point: Taxpayers and practitioners may want to review the list of regulations proposed to be removed to determine whether the regulations continue to serve a useful purpose and should be retained.




Prepare for Examination Season

The tax bar is abuzz with the talk of tax reform. Clients are in modeling purgatory, trying to calculate its effects and plan for the future. Public accounting firms are suggesting how to accelerate deductions in 2017 to take advantage of the massive tax rate decline in 2018. Now more than ever, there are substantial economic incentives to accelerate deductions in 2017 and defer income until 2018. Yes, it’s beginning to look a lot like Christmas and the end to what bodes to be a historic year for federal tax!

Not to be a Grinch, but consider the following as you prepare for year end. If you attempt to accelerate any deductions, make sure to have a complete, “audit-ready” file if the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) decides to test your position. Consider how you will protect against the assertion of any penalties; typically, your ticket to get of out penalty “prison” is to maintain proper substantiation and to establish a reasonable cause defense. An opinion of counsel is one method to meet your burden of establishing that defense. It is always better to be proactive and anticipate an IRS audit than to be reactive and try to compile the proper documentation after-the-fact.




A 360-Degree View: November and December 2017

Wrapping Up November – and Looking Forward to December

Please view all of the topics we discussed over the last month, and take a look at the upcoming tax controversy events where our lawyers will be speaking in December.

Upcoming Tax Controversy Activities in December:

December 14, 2017: Catherine Battin, Britt Haxton, Kristen Hazel, Mary Kay Martire, Jane May, Sandra McGill and Judith Wethall will be hosting the Tax in the City® – A Year in Review event, which will focus on the state and local impact, as well as the federal and international aspects of tax reform.

December 14, 2017: Thomas Jones will be presenting the webinar, “Understand how the new Tax Reform bill will affect the status of captive insurers and hear the latest 2017 tax developments” for the Vermont Captive Insurance Association.




STAY CONNECTED

TOPICS

ARCHIVES