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Lowell D. Yoder focuses his practice on cross-border mergers and acquisitions, global tax planning and international tax controversies, representing high-tech, pharmaceutical, e-commerce, financial, consumer and industrial companies. He advises on tax-efficient structuring of cross-border acquisitions, dispositions, financings, internal reorganizations and joint ventures, as well as tax-beneficial planning for intangible holding companies, global supply chains and multi-jurisdictional service arrangements. Lowell also represents clients before the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), handling audits and obtaining tax rulings. He works with an extensive network of lawyers worldwide, developing tax-favorable transactional and operational cross-border structures. Lowell is the global head of McDermott's Tax Practice. Read Lowell Yoder's full bio.

The IRS has never won a single litigated case arguing for foreign base company sales income (and has never litigated a foreign base company services income case). Courts have consistently rejected the government’s arguments to expansively apply the definition of Subpart F sales income in order to carry out asserted congressional intent. While the courts have acknowledged that the policies informed the rules, they have not permitted the policies to eclipse the plain language of the code, even where the taxpayer engaged in tax planning that took advantage of the rules and arguably frustrated the policies underlying the rules.

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As most taxpayers know, under Internal Revenue Code (Code) Section 6501(a), the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) generally has three years after a tax return is filed to assess any additional tax. However, Code Section 6501 provides several exceptions to this rule, including but not limited to the following.

  • False or fraudulent returns with the intent to evade tax (unlimited assessment period)
  • Willful attempt to defeat or evade tax (unlimited assessment period)
  • Failure to file a return (unlimited assessment period)
  • Extension by agreement (open-ended or for a specific period)
  • Adjustments for certain income and estate tax credits (separately provided in specific statutes)
  • Termination of private foundation status (unlimited assessment period)
  • Valuation of gifts of property (unlimited assessment period)
  • Listed transactions (assessment period remains open for one year after certain information is furnished)
  • Substantial omission of items (six-year assessment period)
  • Failure to include certain information on a personal holding company return (six-year assessment period)

If the IRS issues a notice of deficiency and the taxpayer files a petition in the Tax Court, the statute of limitations on assessment is extended until after the Tax Court’s decision becomes final. See Code Section 6503(a); see also Roberson and Spencer, “11th Circuit Allows Invalid Notice to Suspend Assessment Period,” 136 Tax Notes 709 (August 6, 2012). Continue Reading Statutes of Limitation in the International Tax Context

“The IRS and Treasury recently issued final regulations under Code Sec. 367(a)and (d) that make a monumental change in how those provisions have applied since they were enacted over 30 years ago. For the first time, the regulations subject to taxation the otherwise tax free transfer of foreign goodwill and going concern value by a domestic corporation to a foreign subsidiary for use in a trade or business outside the United States.”

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Originally published in CCH International Tax Journal (Note from the Editor in Chief)

The Treasury and IRS recently issued final regulations under §385 that reclassify certain indebtedness as equity. While the final regulations have limited application to U.S.-based multinationals, they do apply to obligations of domestic corporations to related controlled foreign corporations (‘‘CFCs’’). It is critical to avoid such debt being reclassified as stock under the regulations because of the significant adverse U.S. tax consequences.

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Originally published in Bloomberg BNA Tax Management International Journal, February 10, 2017.

The transfer of foreign goodwill and going concern value by a domestic corporation to a foreign subsidiary for use in a trade or business outside the United States has never been subject to taxation under Code Sec. 367. Without any legislative change, the Internal Revenue Service and the Treasury in proposed regulations would seek to tax such transfers.

In his recent article in the International Tax Journal, Lowell Yoder, global head of McDermott’s Tax Practice, discusses the sweeping changes proposed under the new 367 regulations and the problems posed by the IRS’ approach.  He recommends that the IRS withdraw the proposed regulations, which go far beyond (and actually contradict) legislative intent.

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Income derived by a controlled foreign corporation (CFC) from performing services for an unrelated customer generally is not Subpart F income. However, if U.S. related persons furnish substantial assistance contributing to the performance of the services, under regulations, the CFC will be deemed to perform the services for a related person. In such case, the services income would be Subpart F income to the extent attributable to services performed outside the CFC’s country of organization.

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